• Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
  • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Marksan Global provides every scope of services in the construction of storage tanks and handling facilities for low-temperature liquefied substances such as LNG, Ethylene, Ammonia, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Etc. (Low temperature ranging from -4 °c to -196°c). we have the resources and expert foreign Engineers to design and build LNG storage tanks in any location and under all types of logistical constraints. Our people have the localized knowledge to provide front-end permitting and regulatory compliance support all the way through startup. We direct-hire and train local field personnel whenever possible, and we can quickly mobilize large erection crews anywhere if they are needed. As a dedicated storage tank manufacturer, we offer full-process EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) including maintenance to achieve high-performance project execution for tanks and auxiliary equipment/facilities while leveraging the pricing and geographical advantages of manufacturing products.

About the LNG Terminal Liquefied natural gas terminal is a structure for liquefied natural gas to store. It can comprise special tanks, ships or even building structures. Port infrastructures and pipelines are also a part of LNG terminals

LNG Unloading System

LNG unloading operations use articulated arms which are specifically designed to transfer cargo safely from the ship to the terminal. These articulated arms are called “hard arms” and are the connection between the ship’s manifold system (piping connection) and the terminal. Special types of pipes are used to transfer LNG from the ships to the storage tanks on the terminal. The LNG gas is received at extremely low temperature (-160 C) while transferring to the tanks.

LNG Piping Network

The LNG-PIPE is a double-pipe system designed for the transport of fluids on ships to onshore. It consists of an inner pipe which transports the media, a cold-resistant heat insulation layer, and a encasing pipe. The inner pipeline is guided by bearings within the encasing pipe. End closures for sealing the ring space are installed at the ends of the FW LNGPIPE. The ring space is evacuated to 1 mbar to reduce the heat transfer to the medium and the cooling of the encasing pipe. Components and Materials.

LNG-PIPE consists of:

  • Inner Pipe
  • Heat Insulation
  • Encasing Pipe

Storage Tank

The storage facility is designed with a venting feature as an ultimate protection against risk of overpressure due to a “roll-over” condition in the LNG tank. LNG “rollover” refers to the rapid release of LNG vapours from a storage tank, resulting from stratification. The potential for rollover arises when two stratified layers of different densities (due to different LNG compositions) exist in a tank. To prevent rollover, special instruments called densitometers are used to monitor the development of the layers within the tank, thereby allowing the operator to mix the LNG within the tank or with that in other tanks to break up the stratification. An import terminal usually has two or more LNG storage tanks.

The types of tank types:

  • Single Containment Tanks
  • Double Containment Tanks
  • Full Containment Tanks

Boil-Off Gas (BOG)

Boil-Off Gas (BOG) Reliquefication products are used to recover the BOG naturally generated by heat leaks into cryogenic Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) storage, and during ship loading and unloading phases. These solutions avoid unwanted BOG flaring, and can also be used for debottlenecking LNG export terminals. It also ensure that the LNG composition will remain identical over time, avoiding the well-known “LNG ageing” phenomenon.

Advantages of BOG Reliquefication:

  • Recovers BOG all along the LNG transport chain, from well to end user, therefore ensuring “zero flaring” logistics
  • Maintains LNG fuel specification
  • Helps debottleneck LNG export terminals

LNG Re-Gasification/ Vaporizer System

Regasification is the process of converting LNG gas from liquid state to gaseous state. Heat exchangers are used to Re-gasify the LNG after it is removed from the tanks and pressurized between 70-100 bars. The LNG stored in the tanks is sent to vaporizers which warm and Re-gasify the LNG. As this occurs, LNG stored in the tanks is evaporating. Once the boil-off gas is also re-condensed, LNG is sent to vaporizers. This will avoid flaring or venting boil-off gas for most operating conditions.

The main types of vaporizers used in the LNG industry are:

  • Open Rack Vaporizers: that use seawater (with possible synergy with the neighboring combined cycle gas power plant at the Monitor terminal)
  • Submerged Combustion Vaporizers: That is a water bath heated by natural gas burner
  • Intermediate Fluid Vaporizers: An Intermediate Fluid Vaporizers relies upon two levels of thermal exchange: the first is between LNG and an intermediate fluid such as propane, and the second is between the intermediate fluid and a heat source which is usually seawater
  • Ambient Air Vaporizers: Submerged Combustion Vaporizers burn natural gas produced by the terminal and pass the hot gases into a water bath containing a tubular heat exchanger where LNG flows

Balance of Plant (BOP)

Balance of plant (BOP) is a term generally used in the context of engineering to refer to all the supporting components and auxiliary systems of a LNG plant needed to deliver the energy, other than the generating unit itself. Marksan Global provides a “One Stop LNG Solution” concept to meet the needs of International LNG industry.

The Balance of Plant (BOP) of LNG aggregates the below items:

  • LNG Network System
  • Firefighting System
  • Fire and Gas Alarm System
  • Metering System
  • Piping Network
  • Desuperheater
  • Electric and Instrumentation System

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